Lexicon derived from:
Hampel H et al. J Alzheimers Dis. 2019;68(1):1-24
Hampel H et al. J Alzheimers Dis. 2018;64(s1):S47-S105
Hampel H et al. Pharmacol Res. 2018 Apr;130:331-365
Hampel H et al. Prog Neurobiol. 2019 Oct;181:101662
Precision Medicine Paradigm
Translational science paradigm related to both health and disease. Precision Medicine is a biomarker-guided targeted medicine based on the system-level integration of variables (systems medicine). Methodological advancements and discoveries of the comprehensive pathophysiological profiles of complex polygenic, multi-factorial brain proteinopathies with neurodegeneration. Precision Medicine aims at optimizing the effectiveness of disease prevention and therapy, by considering the individual’s specific “biological make-up” (e.g. genetic, biochemical, phenotypic, lifestyle, and psychosocial characteristics) for targeted interventions through P4M (Predictive, Preventive, Personalized, and Participatory) implementation.
Evolving hypothesis-free, exploratory, holistic (non-reductionist), global, integrative, and interdisciplinary paradigm using advances in multi-modal high-throughput technological platforms that enable the system-level integration of biological networks, from molecular pathways, to cell-to-cell interactions, until large-scale organ and body networks.
According to systems biology, organisms are made of systems which are entities consisting in hierarchically self-organized levels with increasing structural complexity resulting in different emerging properties.
Systems Neurophysiology and Brain Networks Paradigm
Systems Neurophysiology represents a systems-based conceptual framework aimed at exploring non-linear functional-structural interaction in brain networks, from the molecular level to large-scale brain networks and brain-body systems cross-talks.
Systems Neurophysiology allows an integrated and deeper approach to brain adaptation, compensation, and ultimately robustness and resilience which ensure homeostasis.
This paradigm is required by the brain networks paradigm, since the large complexity of the dynamic interactions among multiple brain regions requires advanced mathematical and computational methods.
Integrative Disease Modeling (IDM)
An evolving knowledge-based paradigm in translational research that exploits the power of advanced computational methods to collect, store, integrate, model, and interpret accumulated disease information across different biological scales, i.e. from genes to phenotypes. IDM is a new paradigm at the core of translational research, which prepares the ground for transitioning from descriptive to mechanistic representation of disease processes. Given the tremendous potential of IDM in supporting translation of biomarker and drug research into clinically applicable diagnostic, preventive, prognostic, and therapeutic strategies, it is anticipated that computer-readable disease models will be an indispensable part of future efforts in the P4 medicine research area.
Systems Pharmacology and Precision Pharmacology
Systems pharmacology, an integrative interdisciplinary modelling approach, provides a blueprint for generating comprehensive experimental designs, relying on computational sciences. Systems pharmacology enables to model snapshots of human drug-induced interactomes and intracellular signals, drug-related (epi)genetic regulation, transcription regulatory networks, drug-induced immune responses, drug-drug interactions and drugs-multi targets interactions .
Precision pharmacology is a novel conceptual paradigm that aims at accelerating drug R&D programs informing all decision-making processes, from the proof of pharmacology to the clinical trials development, and until the real-word implementation. This, in turn, will dramatically lower the rate of attrition, generating a high quality and cost-effective platform for accomplishing individualized treatments.